Autism spectrum disorder – Symptoms, Causes, Test and Treatment

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurological and developmental disorder that begins early in life and affects how a person acts, interacts, communicates, and learns. ASD is termed ‘spectrum disorder’ because it encapsulates a wide range of symptoms and behaviors, which can vary immensely from person to person. In this document, we aim to provide an in-depth understanding of ASD, including its symptoms, potential causes, diagnostic procedures, and the available treatment options.

What is Autism spectrum disorder?

Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder that affects the brain’s functioning, leading to difficulties in social interaction, communication, and behavior. It includes a wide range of conditions that fall under the umbrella term of ‘autism’ or ‘ASD.’

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Individuals with ASD may have challenges in various areas such as social skills, repetitive behaviors, sensory sensitivities, and speech and nonverbal communication. These challenges can significantly impact a person’s daily functioning, making it challenging to navigate social situations and form relationships.

Symptoms of Autism spectrum disorder

The symptoms and severity of ASD vary from person to person, which is why it is called a ‘spectrum’ disorder. However, some common signs and behaviors associated with ASD include:

  • Difficulty in social interactions and communication
  • Repetitive behaviors, like hand flapping or rocking back and forth, are commonly observed in individuals.
  • Sensory sensitivities, such as being extremely sensitive to loud noises or textures of certain foods
  • Delayed speech and language skills
  • Difficulty with understanding emotions and expressing empathy
  • Obsessive interests in specific topics or objects

What causes Autism spectrum disorder?

The exact cause of ASD is still unknown, but research suggests that a combination of genetic and environmental factors may play a role. Some potential causes being studied include:

  • Genetic mutations and inherited traits
  • Exposure to certain viruses or chemicals during pregnancy
  • Advanced parental age at the time of conception
  • Low birth weight or premature birth

Related: What Are the 5 Different Types of Autism?

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Signs of Autism to Be Aware Of

It is crucial to be aware of the potential signs of ASD, as early detection and intervention can greatly improve a person’s quality of life. Some red flags that may indicate ASD include:

  • No babbling or pointing by 12 months of age
  • By the age of 16 months, if a child hasn’t started speaking any words, and by 24 months, if they haven’t formed two-word phrases, it may be a cause for concern.
  • Showing disinterest in engaging with others or establishing eye contact
  • Delayed or unusual speech patterns, such as speaking in a robotic tone or repeating phrases over and over (known as echolalia)
  • An apparent indifference to surroundings, events or people
  • Difficulty in adapting to changes in routine or familiar surroundings
  • Strong resistance to certain foods based on texture or color
  • Overly aggressive or passive behavior
  • Fixation on certain objects or tasks with intensity that appears unusual compared to their peers.
  • Unusual body movements or postures, such as walking on their toes or flapping their hands
  • Sensory sensitivities, often manifested as either an overreaction or underreaction to certain sounds, touch, or light.
  • Difficulty in understanding and interpreting other people’s emotions or intentions, often misreading social cues.
  • Displaying inappropriate emotional responses or lack of emotional response to different situations.

Related: A Shocking Reason Behind Autism And Schizophrenia

Diagnosing Autism spectrum disorder

ASD is typically diagnosed in childhood, with most children showing signs and symptoms by the age of two. However, some individuals may not receive a diagnosis until later in life.

ASD is typically diagnosed by a team of specialists, including pediatricians, neurologists, and psychologists. The diagnosis process often involves:

  • Developmental screening to identify potential delays in learning or behavior.
  • Comprehensive evaluation of the child’s cognitive and communication skills.
  • Medical examination to rule out other medical conditions that could be causing the symptoms.
  • Observation of the child’s behavior in various settings, such as at home, school, or with peers.
  • Parental interviews to gather information about the child’s behavior and development from birth to present.
  • Standardized diagnostic tests to assess social interaction, communication skills, and repetitive or restrictive behaviours. These tests include but are not limited to the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised (ADI-R).
  • Consultation with other specialists as necessary, such as a speech and language therapist, a psychiatrist, or a geneticist, for further evaluation and assessment.
  • Review of the child’s educational and behavioral records, which can provide additional insights into the child’s daily functioning and developmental history.

Related: What Are the 5 Different Types of Autism?

Treatment for Autism spectrum disorder

While there is currently no cure for ASD, early intervention can help individuals with autism develop skills and improve their overall functioning. Treatment plans are typically tailored to an individual’s specific needs and can include various therapies such as:

  • Behavioral therapy, including applied behavior analysis (ABA)
  • Speech and language therapy
  • Occupational therapy
  • Social skills training

In addition to therapies, medications may also be prescribed to help manage specific symptoms such as anxiety or hyperactivity.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Can adults be diagnosed with Autism spectrum disorder?

Yes, individuals can receive a diagnosis of ASD at any age. However, many adults may not have been diagnosed in childhood and only seek a diagnosis later in life.

Is there a cure for Autism spectrum disorder?

No, there is currently no cure for ASD. However, early intervention and various therapies can greatly improve an individual’s quality of life and help them develop skills to navigate daily challenges.

Can individuals with Autism spectrum disorder live independently?

While some individuals with ASD may require lifelong support, others can live independently with the appropriate treatment and support systems in place. It ultimately depends on the severity of symptoms and an individual’s specific needs.


Autism spectrum disorder is a complex developmental condition that affects individuals differently. It is crucial to be aware of the signs and symptoms of ASD, as early intervention and diagnosis can greatly improve a person’s quality of life. While there is currently no cure for ASD, various therapies and interventions can help individuals with autism develop skills to navigate daily challenges and lead fulfilling lives. So it is essential to spread awareness about this disorder and support those who have it in any way possible.

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