Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis and More

Post-traumatic stress disorder, commonly known as PTSD, is a mental health condition that’s triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it. It is a complex disorder that can profoundly impact an individual’s everyday life, making it difficult for them to function normally. The sections ahead will explore the causes, symptoms, treatment options, and more about this condition, providing a comprehensive understanding of PTSD.

What Causes PTSD?

PTSD can be caused by a wide range of traumatic events such as:

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  • Military combat
  • Natural disasters
  • Sexual or physical assault
  • Serious accidents
  • Childhood trauma, including neglect and abuse

Not everyone who undergoes a traumatic event will develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).. It is believed that certain factors may increase the risk of developing this disorder, such as:

  • Intensity and duration of the trauma
  • Previous traumatic experiences
  • Family history of mental health conditions
  • History of substance abuse or addiction

Symptoms of PTSD

The symptoms of PTSD can manifest differently in each person, yet they generally align with four main categories: intrusive memories, avoidance, negative shifts in thinking and mood, and changes in physical and emotional reactions. Here are some common symptoms that individuals with PTSD may encounter:

Intrusive Memories

  • Flashbacks of the traumatic event
  • Nightmares or disturbing dreams
  • Intense physical and emotional reactions to triggers associated with the trauma


  • Avoiding people, places, or activities that remind them of the trauma
  • Difficulty remembering details about the traumatic event
  • Feeling emotionally numb or detached from loved ones and daily life

Negative Changes in Thinking and Mood

  • Persistent negative thoughts and feelings
  • Loss of interest in once enjoyable activities
  • Difficulty feeling positive emotions, such as happiness or love

Changes in Physical and Emotional Reactions

  • Irritability, angry outbursts, or aggressive behavior
  • Difficulty sleeping or concentrating
  • Hypervigilance and feeling constantly on edge

Diagnosis of PTSD

If an individual is experiencing symptoms of PTSD, a doctor will conduct a physical exam and psychological evaluation to rule out any underlying medical conditions. They may also use the criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) to diagnose PTSD. This manual provides a set of symptoms and guidelines for mental health disorders, including PTSD.

Treatment Options

There are several treatment options available for individuals with PTSD, including therapy, medication, or a combination of both. Some common types of therapy used to treat this disorder include:

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Medications such as antidepressants, anti-anxiety drugs, and sleep aids may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms of PTSD.

Coping with PTSD

Coping with PTSD can be challenging, but there are some self-care strategies that individuals can practice to help manage their symptoms. These include:

  • Engaging in relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing or meditation
  • Regular exercise and physical activity
  • Connecting with supportive friends and family members
  • Participating in a support group specifically designed for individuals with PTSD.

It’s also essential to seek professional help if symptoms become too overwhelming or difficult to manage. A mental health professional can provide additional coping strategies and support.

How To Effectively Handle Someone With PTSD

If you know someone with PTSD, it’s essential to be understanding and supportive. Here are some tips for helping a loved one with PTSD:

  • Be patient and understanding
  • Listen without judgement
  • Encourage them to seek professional help
  • Educate yourself about the disorder to better understand their experiences and how to support them

Frequently Asked Questions

Can PTSD be cured?

PTSD is a chronic condition, meaning that there is no cure. However, with proper treatment and coping strategies, individuals can learn to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Can children develop PTSD?

Indeed, children have the potential to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following exposure to or observation of a distressing event.. Parents and caregivers need to seek professional help if they notice symptoms of PTSD in a child.

PTSD often co-occurs with other mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and substance abuse. It’s important to address all underlying disorders for effective treatment.


PTSD is a challenging and complex disorder that can significantly impact an individual’s life. However, with proper treatment and support, individuals can learn to manage their symptoms and improve their overall well-being. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and available treatment options for PTSD, we can work towards creating a more supportive and empathetic environment for those living with this condition. Remember, seeking help is not a sign of weakness, and recovery is possible. So, if you or a loved one are experiencing symptoms of PTSD, do not hesitate to reach out for support and treatment. Let’s work towards breaking the stigma surrounding mental health and providing a safe space for those who need it.

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