Kidney Stones: Causes, Symptoms, Types and Treatment

Kidney stones, a common health issue worldwide, are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. This medical condition is often excruciating and has several underlying causes, symptoms, and types. The treatment varies based on the size and type of the stone. In this article, we will delve into the causes of kidney stones, understand their symptoms, explore the different types, and discuss the potential treatment options.


The formation of kidney stones is often linked to certain factors that increase the concentration of minerals and salts in the urine. These include:

  • Dehydration: Insufficient water intake can lead to concentrated urine, making it easier for minerals and salts to stick together and form stones.
  • Family history: If someone in your family has had kidney stones, you have a higher risk of developing them.
  • Diet: Consuming foods high in oxalate, calcium, and purines can increase the likelihood of kidney stones.
  • Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions like urinary tract infections, hyperparathyroidism, and Crohn’s disease can lead to the formation of kidney stones.
  • Medications: Some medications might increase the risk of developing kidney stones. These include specific diuretics, and calcium-based antacids.
  • Obesity: A high body mass index (BMI), large waist size and weight gain have been linked to an increased risk of kidney stones.


The most common symptom of kidney stones is severe pain in the back, side, or lower abdomen. Other symptoms may include:

  • Painful urination
  • Lower back pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Blood in urine
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Fever and chills (if there is an infection)
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • Persistent need to urinate, urinating small amounts frequently
  • Urine that is pink, red, or brown in color.
  • Discomfort or pain while sitting
  • Changes in the frequency and volume of urination
  • Excessive sweating or perspiration
  • General feeling of illness or malaise
  • Unexpected and sudden weight loss
  • Fatigue and exhaustion
  • In severe cases, shock or loss of consciousness may occur.

Related: 12 Urine Colors for Health Insights!

It’s essential to seek medical attention if you experience any of these symptoms, especially if the pain becomes unbearable.

Types of Kidney Stones

There are different types of kidney stones, classified based on their composition:

  • Calcium stones: These are the most common type and are made up of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate.
  • Uric acid stones: These form when there is too much uric acid in the urine and can be caused by a high-purine diet or certain medical conditions.
  • Struvite stones: These are formed due to bacterial infections and can grow quickly, leading to blockages in the urinary tract.
  • Cystine stones: This type is rare and occurs when there is too much cystine (an amino acid) in the urine. It’s often hereditary.

Treatment Options

Treatment for kidney stones depends on the size and type of stone. Small stones may pass through the urinary tract without any medical intervention, but larger ones may require treatment such as:

  • Medications: Pain relievers and alpha blockers can help ease the pain and facilitate stone passage.
  • Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL): This procedure uses shock waves to break the stones into smaller pieces, making it easier for them to pass.
  • Ureteroscopy: A thin tube with a camera is inserted into the urinary tract to locate and remove the kidney stone.
  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL): This minimally invasive surgery involves removing large stones using a small incision in the back.
  • Surgery: In rare cases, surgery may be necessary to remove large or complicated stones.

In addition to medical treatment, it’s crucial to make dietary and lifestyle changes to prevent future kidney stones. Drinking plenty of water and reducing your intake of oxalate-rich foods can help decrease the likelihood of developing kidney stones.

Related: Kidney Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment


Prevention is often the best strategy when it comes to kidney stones, especially for those at risk or who have had them before. Here are some effective prevention strategies:

  • Hydration: Drinking plenty of fluids, especially water, helps dilute the substances that can form stones in the kidneys. Aim to drink at least eight glasses of water per day, or enough to pass clear or light yellow urine.
  • Dietary changes: Adopt a diet low in salt and rich in calcium. Despite popular belief, calcium can help prevent kidney stones. It’s the high salt intake that triggers stone formation by increasing the amount of calcium the kidneys must filter.
  • Limit animal protein: Eating too much animal protein, like red meat, eggs, and seafood, boosts the level of uric acid and could lead to kidney stones. Additionally, a high-protein diet can decrease the concentration of urinary citrate, a substance in urine that plays a role in preventing the formation of stones.
  • Avoid stone-forming foods: Foods such as beets, chocolate, spinach, rhubarb, tea, and most nuts contain high levels of oxalate, while colas are rich in phosphate. Both oxalate and phosphate can potentially contribute to the formation of kidney stones. If you have a history of kidney stones, your doctor may recommend avoiding these foods or consuming them in moderation.

Remember that everyone’s body responds differently to dietary changes, and what works for one person may not work for another. It’s important to discuss any dietary plans with a healthcare provider before embarking on them.

Frequently Asked Questions About Kidney Stones

Can I have kidney stones even if I don’t have any symptoms?

Yes, it’s possible to have small kidney stones without experiencing any symptoms. These may pass through the urinary tract unnoticed.

Are there any natural remedies for kidney stones?

While there are no scientific studies to support their effectiveness, some people claim that drinking lemon juice or apple cider vinegar can help prevent and dissolve kidney stones.

Is there any way to predict if I will develop kidney stones?

While there is no definitive way to predict who will develop kidney stones, certain factors increase the risk. These include a family history of kidney stones, certain medical conditions, and dietary habits.

Can children get kidney stones?

Yes, although it’s less common than in adults. Children who have had previous urinary tract infections or have a family history of kidney stones may be at higher risk.

Is there anything else I should be aware of if I have had kidney stones before?

It’s essential to follow up with your doctor regularly and discuss any changes in your lifestyle or diet that may help prevent future kidney stones. Additionally, if you have a history of kidney stones, it’s important to monitor your urine for signs of infection and seek medical attention promptly if you experience any symptoms.


Kidney stones are a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide. While they can be painful and uncomfortable, they are usually treatable with medications, procedures, and lifestyle changes. By understanding the different types of kidney stones, learning how to prevent them, and seeking proper medical care when needed, you can effectively manage this condition and maintain your overall kidney health. Remember to consult with a healthcare professional if you have any concerns or questions about kidney stones. So, stay hydrated, eat a balanced diet, and take care of your kidneys for optimal health! Happy learning!

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