“Supernumerary teeth” symptoms and causes, and is it possible to avoid their extraction?

Its complications may be serious

Supernumerary teeth, also called “hyperdontia”, are a condition that leads to the growth of an excessive number of teeth in the mouth, the normal number of which is 32 teeth, and they can grow anywhere in the curved areas, where the teeth attach to the mouth, and this area is known as “arches”. the teeth”.

The appearance of supernumerary teeth during the emergence of permanent teeth is more common than their appearance during the stage of milk teeth, as the percentage in permanent teeth is 3.8%, while in milk teeth the percentage is approximately 0.8%.

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While it appears in males twice as often as it does in females, it may be found within members of the same family.

Reasons for the appearance of extra teeth in the jaws

The exact cause of hyperdontia is unknown, but it appears to be linked to several genetic conditions, including:

Gardner Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that causes skin cysts, growth of the skull, and growth of the colon, and is also associated with the appearance of supernumerary teeth.

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A genetic condition that causes loose joints that cause the skin to peel off easily, bruise, and pain in the muscles and joints.

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Fabry syndrome: This syndrome causes an inability to sweat, pain in the hands and feet, a red or blue rash, and abdominal pain.

Cleft lip and palate: These birth defects cause a hole in the roof of the mouth or upper lip, difficulty eating or speaking, and ear infections. More than 22% of people with cleft lip suffer from extra teeth.

Environmental factors: These are related to health problems that the mother suffered during pregnancy, and local factors related to the structure of the child’s jaw.

Symptoms of supernumerary teeth

The main symptom of hyperdontia is the growth of extra teeth behind or directly near your primary or permanent teeth. Supernumerary teeth are classified based on their shape or location in the mouth. Forms of supernumerary teeth include:

Supplementary: The tooth is shaped similarly to the type of teeth it grows near.

Tuber: A tooth that has a tube or barrel-like shape.

Compound odontogenic tumor: A tooth consists of several small tooth-like growths close together.

Complex odontoma: Instead of a single tooth, an area of ​​tooth-like tissue grows in a disordered group.

Conical or wedge-shaped: The teeth are wide at the base and narrow near the top, making them appear sharp.

Complications of supernumerary teeth

1- Preventing or delaying the eruption of permanent teeth near supernumerary teeth, and the eruption of permanent teeth in the wrong place.

2- Crowded teeth, and inability to close spaces during orthodontic treatment.

3- Problems in the development and completion of the roots of permanent teeth near the supernumerary tooth, and also causing the root of an adjacent permanent tooth to dissolve.

4- A large gap forms between the upper front incisor teeth. Because the extra tooth is inside the bone.

5- In rare cases, there may be a cyst associated with the supernumerary tooth, causing more problems.

6- Formation of abscesses or tumors in the mouth. 

7- Eruption into the nasal cavity. Extra teeth may erupt into the nasal cavity instead of the oral cavity. These are rare cases and include many problems such as pain, swelling, and blockage.

How is hyperdontia diagnosed?

Hyperdontia is easy to diagnose if the supernumerary teeth have already grown, but if they have not fully grown, they will still show up on routine dental X-rays.

Your dentist may also use a CT scan to get a more detailed look at your mouth, jaw, and teeth, and detect the presence of accompanying cysts, in addition to detecting supernumerary teeth that are impacted in the bone.

Methods of treating supernumerary teeth

While some cases of hyperdontia do not require treatment, others require the removal of supernumerary teeth. Your dentist will also likely recommend the removal of supernumerary teeth if:

You have an underlying genetic condition that causes extra teeth.

You cannot chew properly, or your extra teeth hurt your mouth when chewing.

You feel pain or discomfort due to congestion.

You have difficulty brushing or flossing your teeth properly due to extra teeth, which can lead to cavities or gum disease.

You feel uncomfortable or ashamed about the way your extra teeth look.

If treatment is decided, first the doctor begins by studying your supernumerary teeth, their location, and their causes.

In many cases, the treatment is to extract all supernumerary teeth due to their disorder, abnormal shape, or weak root condition.

In other cases, the doctor may keep them if they are healthy and will not cause any problems in the future, especially in the case of tooth loss, these extra teeth may be replaced instead.

As for the tooth embedded in the jaw bone, the location of the tooth must first be determined and the extent of its potential to cause problems for adjacent teeth, then it must be dealt with by one of the following means:

1- If it is in a place far from the teeth, its roots can be left in place inside the bone with annual monitoring with x-rays, and informing the patient of the potential risks.

2- If it is dangerous for the rest of the teeth, it must be removed, either by regular extraction if it has erupted or surgical extraction if it is embedded inside the bone while monitoring the eruption of the permanent teeth that caused them not to erupt after their removal, as the orthodontist may sometimes have to withdraw the tooth with an orthodontic device. .

3- For children, it is preferable to extract supernumerary teeth early, as soon as the child obtains his permanent teeth, to avoid problems that may occur in the future.

Finally: Many people with the problem of extra teeth do not need any treatment, and others may need to remove some or all of their extra teeth to avoid any other problems, so be sure to tell your doctor about any feeling of pain, discomfort, or swelling, and remember that your regular visit to the doctor Teeth every 6 months will save you from many future problems.

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This site provides educational information only. It is important not to depend on any content here in place of professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Similarly, it should not replace professional counseling care, advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have any health concerns or questions, always seek guidance from a physician or another healthcare professional.